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Why a new API gateway?#

There are new requirements for API gateways in the field of microservices: higher flexibility, higher performance requirements, and cloud native.

What are the differences between Apache APISIX and other API gateways?#

Apache APISIX is based on etcd to save and synchronize configuration, not relational databases such as Postgres or MySQL.

This not only eliminates polling, makes the code more concise, but also makes configuration synchronization more real-time. At the same time, there will be no single point in the system, which is more usable.

In addition, Apache APISIX has dynamic routing and hot loading of plug-ins, which is especially suitable for API management under micro-service system.

What's the performance of Apache APISIX?#

One of the goals of Apache APISIX design and development is the highest performance in the industry. Specific test data can be found here:benchmark

Apache APISIX is the highest performance API gateway with a single-core QPS of 23,000, with an average delay of only 0.6 milliseconds.

Does Apache APISIX have a user interface?#

Yes. Apache APISIX has an experimental feature called Apache APISIX Dashboard, which is an independent project apart from Apache APISIX. You can deploy Apache APISIX Dashboard to operate Apache APISIX through the user interface.

Can I write my own plugin?#

Of course, Apache APISIX provides flexible custom plugins for developers and businesses to write their own logic.

How to write plugin

Why we choose etcd as the configuration center?#

For the configuration center, configuration storage is only the most basic function, and Apache APISIX also needs the following features:

  1. Cluster
  2. Transactions
  3. Multi-version Concurrency Control
  4. Change Notification
  5. High Performance

See more etcd why.

Why is it that installing Apache APISIX dependencies with Luarocks causes timeout, slow or unsuccessful installation?#

There are two possibilities when encountering slow luarocks:

  1. Server used for luarocks installation is blocked
  2. There is a place between your network and github server to block the 'git' protocol

For the first problem, you can use https_proxy or use the --server option to specify a luarocks server that you can access or access faster. Run the luarocks config rocks_servers command(this command is supported after luarocks 3.0) to see which server are available. For China mainland users, you can use the as the luarocks server.

We already provide a wrapper in the Makefile to simplify your job:


If using a proxy doesn't solve this problem, you can add --verbose option during installation to see exactly how slow it is. Excluding the first case, only the second that the git protocol is blocked. Then we can run git config --global url."https://".insteadOf git:// to using the 'HTTPS' protocol instead of git.

How to support gray release via Apache APISIX?#

An example,, gray release based on id in the query string in URL as a condition:

  1. Group A:id <= 1000
  2. Group B:id > 1000

There are two different ways to do this:

  1. Use the vars field of route to do it.
curl -i -H 'X-API-KEY: edd1c9f034335f136f87ad84b625c8f1' -X PUT -d '{    "uri": "/index.html",    "vars": [        ["arg_id", "<=", "1000"]    ],    "plugins": {        "redirect": {            "uri": "/test?group_id=1"        }    }}'
curl -i -H 'X-API-KEY: edd1c9f034335f136f87ad84b625c8f1' -X PUT -d '{    "uri": "/index.html",    "vars": [        ["arg_id", ">", "1000"]    ],    "plugins": {        "redirect": {            "uri": "/test?group_id=2"        }    }}'

Here is the operator list of current lua-resty-radixtree

  1. Use traffic-split plugin to do it.

Please refer to the plugin documentation for usage examples.

How to redirect http to https via Apache APISIX?#

An example, redirect to

There are several different ways to do this.

  1. Directly use the http_to_https in redirect plugin:
curl  -H 'X-API-KEY: edd1c9f034335f136f87ad84b625c8f1' -X PUT -d '{    "uri": "/hello",    "host": "",    "plugins": {        "redirect": {            "http_to_https": true        }    }}'
  1. Use with advanced routing rule vars with redirect plugin:
curl -i  -H 'X-API-KEY: edd1c9f034335f136f87ad84b625c8f1' -X PUT -d '{    "uri": "/hello",    "host": "",    "vars": [        [            "scheme",            "==",            "http"        ]    ],    "plugins": {        "redirect": {            "uri": "https://$host$request_uri",            "ret_code": 301        }    }}'
  1. serverless plugin:
curl -i  -H 'X-API-KEY: edd1c9f034335f136f87ad84b625c8f1' -X PUT -d '{    "uri": "/hello",    "plugins": {        "serverless-pre-function": {            "phase": "rewrite",            "functions": ["return function() if ngx.var.scheme == \"http\" and == \"\" then ngx.header[\"Location\"] = \"\" .. ngx.var.request_uri; ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_MOVED_PERMANENTLY); end; end"]        }    }}'

Then test it to see if it works:

curl -i -H 'Host:'

The response body should be:

HTTP/1.1 301 Moved PermanentlyDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 02:56:04 GMTContent-Type: text/htmlContent-Length: 166Connection: keep-aliveLocation: APISIX web server
<html><head><title>301 Moved Permanently</title></head><body><center><h1>301 Moved Permanently</h1></center><hr><center>openresty</center></body></html>

How to change the log level?#

The default log level for Apache APISIX is warn. However You can change the log level to info if you want to trace the messages print by


  1. Modify the parameter error_log_level: "warn" to error_log_level: "info" in conf/config.yaml.
nginx_config:  error_log_level: "info"
  1. Reload or restart Apache APISIX

Now you can trace the info level log in logs/error.log.

How to reload your own plugin?#

The Apache APISIX plugin supports hot reloading. See the Hot reload section in plugins for how to do that.

How to make Apache APISIX listen on multiple ports when handling HTTP or HTTPS requests?#

By default, Apache APISIX only listens on port 9080 when handling HTTP requests. If you want Apache APISIX to listen on multiple ports, you need to modify the relevant parameters in the configuration file as follows:

  1. Modify the parameter of HTTP port listen node_listen in conf/config.yaml, for example:

     apisix:   node_listen:     - 9080     - 9081     - 9082

    Handling HTTPS requests is similar, modify the parameter of HTTPS port listen ssl.listen_port in conf/config.yaml, for example:

    apisix:  ssl:    listen_port:      - 9443      - 9444      - 9445
  2. Reload or restart Apache APISIX

How does Apache APISIX use etcd to achieve millisecond-level configuration synchronization#

etcd provides subscription functions to monitor whether the specified keyword or directory is changed (for example: watch, watchdir).

Apache APISIX uses etcd.watchdir to monitor directory content changes:

  • If there is no data update in the monitoring directory: the process will be blocked until timeout or other errors occurred.
  • If the monitoring directory has data updates: etcd will return the new subscribed data immediately (in milliseconds), and Apache APISIX will update it to the memory cache.

With the help of etcd which incremental notification feature is millisecond-level, Apache APISIX achieve millisecond-level of configuration synchronization.

How to customize the Apache APISIX instance id?#

By default, Apache APISIX will read the instance id from conf/apisix.uid. If it is not found, and no id is configured, Apache APISIX will generate a uuid as the instance id.

If you want to specify a meaningful id to bind Apache APISIX instance to your internal system, you can configure it in conf/config.yaml, for example:

```apisix:  id: "your-meaningful-id"```

Why there are a lot of "failed to fetch data from etcd, failed to read etcd dir, etcd key: xxxxxx" errors in error.log?#

First please make sure the network between Apache APISIX and etcd cluster is not partitioned.

If the network is healthy, please check whether your etcd cluster enables the gRPC gateway. However, The default case for this feature is different when use command line options or configuration file to start etcd server.

  1. When command line options is in use, this feature is enabled by default, the related option is --enable-grpc-gateway.
etcd --enable-grpc-gateway --data-dir=/path/to/data

Note this option is not shown in the output of etcd --help.

  1. When configuration file is used, this feature is disabled by default, please enable enable-grpc-gateway explicitly.
# etcd.json{    "enable-grpc-gateway": true,    "data-dir": "/path/to/data"}
# etcd.conf.ymlenable-grpc-gateway: true

Indeed this distinction was eliminated by etcd in their master branch, but not backport to announced versions, so be care when deploy your etcd cluster.

How to set up high available Apache APISIX clusters?#

The high availability of Apache APISIX can be divided into two parts:

  1. The data plane of Apache APISIX is stateless and can be elastically scaled at will. Just add a layer of LB in front.

  2. The control plane of Apache APISIX relies on the highly available implementation of etcd cluster and does not require any relational database dependency.

Why does the make deps command fail in source installation?#

When executing the make deps command, an error such as the one shown below occurs. This is caused by the missing openresty's openssl development kit, you need to install it first. Please refer to the install dependencies document for installation.

$ make deps......Error: Failed installing dependency: - Could not find header file for OPENSSL  No file openssl/ssl.h in /usr/local/includeYou may have to install OPENSSL in your system and/or pass OPENSSL_DIR or OPENSSL_INCDIR to the luarocks command.Example: luarocks install luasec OPENSSL_DIR=/usr/localmake: *** [deps] Error 1

How to access Apache APISIX Dashboard through Apache APISIX proxy#

  1. Keep the Apache APISIX proxy port and Admin API port different(or disable Admin API). For example, do the following configuration in conf/config.yaml.

The Admin API use a separate port 9180:

apisix:  port_admin: 9180            # use a separate port
  1. Add proxy route of Apache APISIX Dashboard:

Note: The Apache APISIX Dashboard service here is listening on

curl -i  -H 'X-API-KEY: edd1c9f034335f136f87ad84b625c8f1' -X PUT -d '{    "uris":[ "/*" ],    "name":"apisix_proxy_dashboard",    "upstream":{        "nodes":[            {                "host":"",                "port":9000,                "weight":1            }        ],        "type":"roundrobin"    }}'

How to use route uri for regular matching#

The regular matching of uri is achieved through the vars field of route.

curl -i -H 'X-API-KEY: edd1c9f034335f136f87ad84b625c8f1' -X PUT -d '{    "uri": "/*",    "vars": [        ["uri", "~~", "^/[a-z]+$"]    ],    "upstream": {            "type": "roundrobin",            "nodes": {                "": 1            }    }}'

Test request:

# The uri matched successfully$ curl -iHTTP/1.1 200 OK...
# The uri match failed$ curl -iHTTP/1.1 404 Not Found...

In route, we can achieve more condition matching by combining uri with vars field. For more details of using vars, please refer to lua-resty-expr.

Does the upstream node support configuring the FQDN address#

This is supported. Here is an example where the FQDN is httpbin.default.svc.cluster.local:

This is supported. Here is an example where the FQDN is httpbin.default.svc.cluster.local (a Kubernetes Service):

curl  -H 'X-API-KEY: edd1c9f034335f136f87ad84b625c8f1' -X PUT -d '{    "uri": "/ip",    "upstream": {        "type": "roundrobin",        "nodes": {            "httpbin.default.svc.cluster.local": 1        }    }}'
# Test request$ curl -iHTTP/1.1 200 OK...

What is the X-API-KEY of Admin API? Can it be modified?#

  1. The X-API-KEY of Admin API refers to the apisix.admin_key.key in the config.yaml file, and the default value is edd1c9f034335f136f87ad84b625c8f1. It is the access token of the Admin API.

Note: There are security risks in using the default API token. It is recommended to update it when deploying to a production environment.

  1. X-API-KEY can be modified.

For example: make the following changes to the apisix.admin_key.key in the conf/config.yaml file and reload Apache APISIX.

apisix:  admin_key    -      name: "admin"      key: abcdefghabcdefgh      role: admin

Access the Admin API:

$ curl -i  -H 'X-API-KEY: abcdefghabcdefgh' -X PUT -d '{    "uris":[ "/*" ],    "name":"admin-token-test",    "upstream":{        "nodes":[            {                "host":"",                "port":1980,                "weight":1            }        ],        "type":"roundrobin"    }}'
HTTP/1.1 200 OK......

The route was created successfully. It means that the modification of X-API-KEY takes effect.

How to allow all IPs to access Admin API#

By default, Apache APISIX only allows the IP range of to access the Admin API. If you want to allow all IP access, then you only need to add the following configuration in the conf/config.yaml configuration file.

apisix:  allow_admin:    -

Restart or reload Apache APISIX, all IPs can access the Admin API.

Note: You can use this method in a non-production environment to allow all clients from anywhere to access your Apache APISIX instances, but it is not safe to use it in a production environment. In production environment, please only authorize specific IP addresses or address ranges to access your instance.

How to auto renew SSL cert via

$ curl --output /root/ --silent
$ chmod +x /root/
$  --issue  --staging  -d demo.domain --renew-hook "/root/  -h http://apisix-admin:port -p /root/ -k /root/ -a xxxxxxxxxxxxx"
$ --renew --domain demo.domain

Blog has detail setup.

How to strip route prefix for path matching#

To strip route prefix before forwarding to upstream, for example from /foo/get to /get, could be achieved through plugin proxy-rewrite.

curl -i -H 'X-API-KEY: edd1c9f034335f136f87ad84b625c8f1' -X PUT -d '{    "uri": "/foo/*",    "plugins": {        "proxy-rewrite": {            "regex_uri": ["^/foo/(.*)","/$1"]        }    },    "upstream": {        "type": "roundrobin",        "nodes": {            "": 1        }    }}'

Test request:

$ curl -iHTTP/1.1 200 OK...{  ...  "url": ""}

How to fix unable to get local issuer certificate error#


# ...apisix:  ssl:    ssl_trusted_certificate: /path/to/certs/ca-certificates.crt# ...


  • Whenever trying to connect TLS services with cosocket, if APISIX does not trust the peer's TLS service certificate, you should set apisix.ssl.ssl_trusted_certificate

As an example, if using Nacos as a service discovery in APISIX, Nacos has TLS protocol enabled, i.e. Nacos configuration host starts with https://, so you need to configure apisix.ssl.ssl_trusted_certificate and use the same CA certificate as Nacos.

How to fix module '' not found error#

Installing APISIX under the /root directory causes this problem. Because the worker process is run by the user nobody, it does not have enough permissions to access the files in the /root directory. You need to change the APISIX installation directory, and it is recommended to install it in the /usr/local directory.

What is the difference between plugin-metadata and plugin-configs#

plugin-metadata is the metadata of the plugin, which is shared by all configuration instances of the plugin. When writing a plugin. If there are some property changes that need to take effect for all configuration instances of the plugin, then it is appropriate to put them in plugin-metadata.

plugin-configs is a collection of configuration instances of multiple different plugins. If you want to reuse a common set of plugin configuration instances, you can extract them into a Plugin Config and bind them to the corresponding routes.

The difference between plugin-metadata and plugin-configs:

  • Plugin configuration instance scope: plugin-metadata works on all configuration instances of this plugin. plugin-configs works on the plugin configuration instances under configured it.
  • Binding entities: plugin-metadata take effect on the entities bound to all configuration instances of this plugin. plugin-configs take effect on the routes bound to this plugin-configs.